Salk Institute and UC San Diego researchers have shown that the spike protein from the novel coronavirus coat damages human endothelial cells, confirming Covid-19 as primarily a vascular disease not a respiratory disease.
Salk researchers, collaborating with scientists from the University of California San Diego including co-first author Jiao Zhang and co-senior author John Shyy, among others, created a pseudovirus, where an inert virus was surrounded by the SARS-Cov-2 coat of spike proteins. Using animals, infection with this pseudovirus resulted in damage to the lungs and arteries. In other words, the spike protein is enough to cause inflammation and severe disease in the endothelial cells, resulting in damaged vascular cells, blood clots and more. Assistant Research Professor Uri Manor, co-senior author of the study said, “That could explain why some people have strokes, and why some people have issues in other parts of the body. The commonality between them is that they all have vascular underpinnings.”
The team are the first scientists to show the spike protein can do this on its own, a fact confirmed in the second part of their study. In a laboratory study they showed that the spike protein damaged the cells by binding ACE2, which disrupted the molecular signaling to mitochondria causing them to become damaged, fragmented and change shape. Thus the whole body could be damaged by the spike protein.
On May 2nd, the Health Authorities in Denmark banned the use of J&J’s Covid-19 vaccine stating that the risk of unusual blood clots as a side-effect far outweighed the benefits of the vaccine. Like the Oxford University, AstraZeneca-marketed vaccine, the J&J vaccine uses an inert cold virus carrying a piece of spike protein coat.
In Norway, it looks like a ban is on the cards too. Oslo University Hospital are now confident that their research shows that the vaccine produces antibodies but then these cause blood clots. Unsurprisingly, the Norweigan Institute of Public Health has recommended that their Government stop using the AstraZeneca vaccine. Director Geir Bukholm stated, “There is now significantly more knowledge about the connection between the AstraZeneca vaccine and the rare and serious incidents of low platelets, blood clots and bleeding”, adding, ”Since there are few … who die from COVID-19 in Norway, the risk of dying after vaccination with the AstraZeneca vaccine would be higher than the risk of dying from the disease, particularly for younger people.”
- SARS-Cov-2 Spike protein impairs endothelial function via down regulation of ACE2; Yuyang Lei, Jiao Zhang, Cara R Schiavon, Ming He, Lili Chen, Hui Shen, Yichi Zhang, Qian Yin, Yoshitake Cho, Leonardo Andrade, Gerald S Shadel, Mark Hepokoski, Ting Lei, Hongliang Wang, Jin Zhang, Jason X-J Yuan, Atul Malhotra, Uri Manor, Shengpeng Wang, Zu-Yi Yuan, and John Y-J Shyy; https://www.salk.edu/news-release/the-novel-coronavirus-spike-protein-plays-additional-key-role-in-illness/